About a year ago I went to Malaysian Borneo, a unique place of its kind in the natural environment where the natural environment is presented under various and indefinite aspects, its beauty seems inexhaustible as its natural resources. Entering the jungle is a unique and unparalleled experience as it is a territory where man is still in complete harmony with the multiformity of nature, with the succession of seasons and years.
Because of its geographical position, far from everything and everyone, it is called the “Lost World”.
It is the only place in the world where you can find endemic species of wild animals such as the pygmy elephant, the nebulous leopard, the Malayan bear and the Nasica monkey; while on the banks of the Kinabatang River in the Sabah region there is the highest concentration of wildlife in South East Asia. In Borneo, forests are still populated by Dayak tribes, once warriors and head cutters, who live in traditional houses (longhouses), built on stilts where 30 or more families live in one building. Being a region that retains its primordial characteristics, in my opinion no description can make an adequate idea of its magnificence.
From the first days spent in the tropical forest, I realized that I saw the place under a much more stimulating view compared to other primary forests that I visited before. I found this place much more rewarding at the sensory level: it is possible to come into contact with many more animals such as reptiles, amphibians and insects especially at night, all seasoned by a multitude of smells and above all of surreal sounds. In fact, some animals during the night produce particular and very intense sounds; among these the Goniocephalìis horneensis, a species of large lizard seen by me several times, characterized by a long serrated crest on the back, which produces a very strong cry. This sound together with another equally strange (wa-wa), produced by frogs, is one of those noises that are hard to believe that it is produced by animals. To feed the multitude of sounds in the forest, did not go unnoticed the song of the balm cricket Pomponia imperatoria, which is particular both for its sound produced that is very reminiscent of the braying of a donkey, but also for its large size that can reach. In Sarawak during the hottest hours it is not uncommon to see flying lizards (Draco volans) passing from one tree to another, and hovering in the air with the membranous expansions, which are provided on the sides of their body.
Among the colorful hunting strategies used by animals in this place, one of the most unique is certainly that of the archer fish (Toxotes). This fish is able to use its mouth to generate a spray of water to hit the prey from several feet away and then feed on it. These fish create inside their mouth, a structure similar to a barrel of a rifle. By effectively positioning the tongue along the upper part of the mouth, at the same time closing the gills generate a thrust that shoots the water towards the prey. This is particularly impressive considering that the fish must take into account the reflection of light on the surface of the water to shoot at targets up to 60 centimeters away.
In Sarawak near the Baku National Park, close the mangroves I came across the Perioftalmi (Mudskipper), visible in herds that count even more than 20 individuals and recognizable by their typical blue dotted gray color. These particular amphibians are very active even out of the water where they feed and reproduce, and have the particularity of using their pectoral fins to walk and jump up to a height of 60 centimeters, adapting to intertidal habitats, survive the withdrawal of the tide hiding under the wet algae or in the formed pools of the tides. They have the particularity of performing a cutaneous respiration when they are immersed, through the mucosa that covers the mouth and with the larynx, while when there are holes in the water they breathe as they do in traditional diving, where through the gills it is stored a bubble of air dissolved in water that allows him to breathe.
Speaking of skin breathing, the only frog without lungs was discovered in Kalimatan in 2008.
“The only breathless frog in the world leaves the scientists breathless”.
A particularly rare evolutionary event that has been documented only three times in some species of salamanders. The Lungless frog (Barbourula kalimantanensis) is considered one of the most elusive and enigmatic amphibians of Borneo. This amphibian breathes entirely through its skin, also having a flattened shape that maximizes the surface of its skin allowing it to absorb all the necessary oxygen in its habitat, characterized by cold running waters such as streams, streams and springs. This frog is in danger and could be wiped out by illegal gold mining practices that are destroying its habitat.
In Borneo, bats can be found asleep in the arms of carnivorous plants.
Bats (Kerivoula hardwickii), have the habit of falling asleep in a carnivorous plant (Nepenthes). Generally, other species of carnivorous plants live feeding on insects, from which they suck the nitrogen necessary for their survival, in this way during the nocturnal rest these intelligent little animals defend themselves from the various parasites that threaten them using the host plant also as a toilet. The plant in fact, the plant benefits from their droppings which constitute for it a supplement of food.
Finally I could not fail to mention the snail Iachico rachelae nicknamed by the researchers the “ninja snail“. This green and yellow snail was discovered atop the high mountains of the Malay area of Mount Kinabalu. The snail has a tail three times its length and wraps itself on itself when it rests. It is part of the Ariophantidae family, and uses an unusual courting strategy by shooting “darts of love” containing calcium carbonate. The dart is similar to a harpoon that pierces and injects a hormone into a companion and can play a role in increasing the chances of reproduction.